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Challenging Henn study

Posted by big mike M on May 7, 2013 at 1:30 PM Comments comments (1)

These are quotes from the study

http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pgen.1002397


 

 

Quote:

 

The Nuragic populations appear to be part of a large and geographically unstructured cluster of modern European populations, thus making it difficult to infer their evolutionary relationships. However, the low levels of genetic diversity, both within and among ancient samples, as opposed to the sharp differences among modern Sardinian samples, support the hypothesis of the expansion of a small group of maternally related individuals,


 

Translation: That is an outright lie. They hinted at an evolutionary relation ship within the study. They cannot suggest northern Europe because there was no comparable civilization north of Sardinia in Europe. Thus they chose Iberia. Avoiding the geographically closest region ie North Africa, which had a similar civilization. In addition what they are saying is these people later EXPANDED into Europe.

 

 

Quote: .

These two sequences find no match in comparisons with 92 Africanfrican samples EITHER (data not given). Six haplotypes are shared between modern and ancient Sardinians, representing 61% of the ancient individuals

 

 

Translation: strange choice of words…”EITHER” plus, “data not shown” . Looks like they are trying to prove no connection with Africa. Although the data clearly shows a connection.

 

Quote:

All outliers are either populations separated by large geographic distances from the other Europeans ([mainly North Africans and Central Asians), or well-known.

 

 

Translation: This is an outright lie. Did they look at a world map and calculated geographic distances? Maybe they thought we wouldn’t. . See notes on Fig 3. the CIRCLE – These European regions are further from Sardinia than North Africa. Estonia, Iceland, Holland, Switzland, etc What is astonishing is they included North African Berbers as Europeans to bring the overall European group closer to the Nuragic. After initially admitting the Sardinians are outliers compared to other Europeans. Man, talk about manipulating data.

 

 

Quote:

In the multidimensional scaling of Fig. 3, Nuragic Sardinians cluster with the majority of the European populations. Given the small sample size, inevitable in ancient DNA studies, it is at present impossible to infer their evolutionary relationships from mtDNA aYnities. Nevertheless, in relation with ancient samples, Nuragic Sardinians appear more related to the Iberians than to the Etruscans, whose position in the graph is eccentric. Three data points are not enough for a robust generalisation. However, one can at least conclude that Sardinians and Iberians show a greater genealogical continuity with the Bronze-Age inhabitants of the same regions than the Tuscans. To better understand the processes leading to these differences it will be necessary to genetically characterise people who lived in those areas between 2,000 years ago and the present time.

 

 

Translation: Enough said, according to the authors they were probably Iberians migrants. Although using the same yardstick …they should be classified as North Africans migrants.

 

 


 

 

 

A Revised Timescale for Human Evolution Based on Ancient Mitochondrial Genomes

Posted by big mike M on May 7, 2013 at 1:05 PM Comments comments (0)

http://www.cell.com/current-biology/retrieve/pii/S0960982213002157


Quote:

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Human mutation rates are directly calculated using securely dated ancient human mtDNAs ► The study provides improved molecular estimates for human evolutionary events. The last major gene flow event between Africans and non-Africans was calculated to 95 kya

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--Fu et al 2013

 


Quote:

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All but one of the ancient modern human sequences from Europe belonged to mtDNA hg U, thus confirming previous findings that hg U was the dominant type of mtDNA before the spread of agriculture into Europe. The exception was the Cro-Magnon 1 sample, which belonged to the derived hg T2b1, an unexpected hg given its putative age of 30,000 years. Since the radiocarbon date for this specimen was obtained from an associated shell, we dated the sample itself using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Surprisingly, the sample had a much younger age of about 700 years, suggesting a medieval origin. Consequently, this bone fragment has now been removed from the Cro-Magnon collection at the Musee de l’Homme in Paris. ...

 

It has been argued that hg U5 is the most ancient subhaplogroup of the U lineage, originating among the first early modern humans in Europe. Our results support this hypothesis because we find that the two Dolni Vestonice individuals radiocarbon dated to 31.5 kya carry a type of mtDNA that is as yet uncharacterized, sits close to the root of hg U, and carries two mutations that are specific to hg U5.

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Nazlet Khater Man

Posted by big mike M on April 7, 2013 at 2:00 PM Comments comments (0)

In the sum, the results obtained further strengthen the results from previous analyses. The affinities between Nazlet Khater, MSA, and Khoisan and Khoisan related groups re-emerges. In addition it is possible to detect a separation between North African and sub-saharan populations, with the Neolithic Saharan population from Hasi el Abiod and the Egyptian Badarian group being closely affiliated with modern Negroid groups. Similarly, the Epipaleolithic populations from Site 117 and Wadi Halfa are also affiliated with sub-Saharan LSA, Iron Age and modern Negroid groups rather than with contemporaneous North African populations such as Taforalt and the Ibero-maurusian. -- Pierre M. Vermeersch (Author & Editor), 'Palaeolithic quarrying sites in Upper and Middle Egypt', Egyptian Prehistory Monographs Vol. 4, Leuven University Press (2002).

 

Both hypotheses are compatible with the hypothesis proposed by Brothwell (1963) of an East African proto-Khoisan Negro stock which migrated southwards and westwards at some time during the Upper Pleistocene, and replaced most of the local populations of South Africa. Under such circumstances, it is possible that the Nazlet Khater specimen is part of a relict population of this proto-Khoisan Negro stock which extended as far north as Nazlet Khater at least until the late part of the Late Pleistocene. --- The Position of the Nazlet Khater Specimen Among Prehistoric and Modern African and Levantine Populations, Ron Pinhasi, Departent of Biological Anthropology, University of Cambridge, U.K., Patrick Semal, Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Belgium; Journal of Human Evolution (2000) vol. 39.



Kongo Kingdom

Posted by big mike M on April 6, 2013 at 9:25 AM Comments comments (4)


Not that many people bother to learn about the Kongo Kingdom, but the Kongo Kingdom was highly advanced kingdom, one can say as advanced as Ancient Egypt. But anyways this blog is to educate those on the Kongo Kingdom.

Now lets get started...

African Treasures
17th century painting of the dutch painter Albert Eckhout showing two emissaries of the Kingdom of Kongo in Brazil holding the two main sources of wealth in west africa, an ivory tusk and a jewel box.

African Nobleman
17th century painting of the dutch painter Albert Eckhout showing the nobleman Don Miguel de Castro from the Kingdom of Kongo during a commercial trip to the portuguese colony of Brazil.


African King
illustration showing the king Afonso I of Kongo, ruler of the Kingdom of Kongo in the first half of the 16th century. Afonso is best known for his vigorous attempt to convert Kongo to a Catholic country, by establishing the Roman Catholic Church in Kongo, providing for its financing from tax revenues, and creating schools. By 1516 there were over 1000 students in the royal school, and other schools were located in the provinces, eventually resulting in the development of a fully literate noble class.

M'banza-Kongo

 

M'banza-Kongo was once the home of the Manikongo, the ruler of the Kingdom of Kongo, which at its peak reached from southern Africa's Atlantic coast to the Nkisi River.

 

The earliest documented kings referred to their city in their correspondence as "the city of Congo" (cidade de Congo), and the name of the city as São Salvador appears for the first time in the letters of Álvaro I (1568–1587) and was carried on by his successors. The name was changed back to "City of Kongo" (Mbanza Kongo) after Angolan independence in 1975.

 

 

When the Portuguese arrived in Kongo, Mbanza Kongo was already a large town, perhaps the largest in sub-equatorial Africa, and an early visitor of 1491 compared it in size to the Portuguese town of Évora. During the reign of Afonso I, stone buildings were added, including a palace and several churches. The town grew substantially as the kingdom of Kongo expanded and grew, and an ecclesiastical statement of the 1630s related that 4,000-5,000 baptisms were performed in the city and its immediate hinterland (presumably the valleys that surround it), which is consistent with an overall population of 100,000 people. Of these, perhaps 30,000 lived on the mountain and the remainder in the valleys around the city. Among its important buildings were some twelve churches, including São Salvador, as well as private chapels and oratories and an impressive two-story royal palace, the only such building in all of Kongo, according to the visitor Giovanni Francesco da Roma (1648).

 

The city was sacked several times during the civil wars that followed the battle of Mbwila (or Ulanga) in 1665, and was abandoned in 1678. It was reoccupied in 1705 by Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita's followers and restored as Kongo's capital by King Pedro IV of Kongo in 1709. It was never again depopulated though its population fluctuated substantially during the eighteenth and nineteenth century.

 

M'banza Kongo is known for the ruins of its 16th century cathedral (built in 1549).

The capital of the Kingdom of Kongo


llustration of the ruler of Loango, from Dapper's Description of Africa (1668)

Earliest human settlement, in what is now the DRC, stretches back some 10 000 years. The earliest settlers were in all likelihood short statured hunter-gathers, now known (though controversially so) as pygmies. Some 1 300 years ago these Stone Age peoples were followed by Bantu and Nilotic speaking hunter-gatherer groups, who settled initially in the northern savannah areas. In time the new-comers adopted or developed the cultivation of tropical crops, cattle husbandry and iron working technology which enabled them to subdue and displace the original pygmy populations, gradually driving them into the mountains and the thicker parts of the rain forest.

 

In the Congo area a number of extensive and complex trading states emerged in the savannah; the Kongo kingdom, the Luba Empire, the Lunda kingdom, the Zande kingdoms, and the kingdom of Kuba. While chiefdoms did emerge within the rainforests, they never rivaled the savannah states for size and complexity.


 

The Kingdom of Kongo (1400– 1914)

The first of these, the Kongo kingdom, was founded by invaders from the north east who settled south of the Congo River in the late 1300s and grew to encompass the north of modern Angola and the western areas of the DRC (Library of Congress 1993)

 

 

Foundation of the Kingdom

 

The first king of the Kingdom of Kongo Dya Ntotila was Lukeni lua Nimi (circa 1280-1320).The name Nimi a Lukeni appeared in later oral traditions and some modern historians, notably Jean Cuvelier, popularized it. Lukeni lua Nimi or Nimi a Lukeni, became the founder of Kongo when he conquered the kingdom of the Mwene Kabunga (or Mwene Mpangala), which lay upon a mountain to his south. He transferred his rule to this mountain, the Mongo dia Kongo or "mountain of Kongo", and made Mbanza Kongo, the town there, his capital. Two centuries later the Mwene Kabunga's descendants still symbolically challenged the conquest in an annual celebration. The rulers that followed Lukeni all claimed some form of relation to his kanda or lineage and were known as the Kilukeni. The Kilukeni kanda or "house" as recorded in Portuguese documents would rule Kongo unopposed until 1567.

 

After the death of Nimi a Lukeni, his brother, Mbokani Mavinga, took over the throne and ruled until approximately 1367. He had two wives and nine children. His rule saw an expansion of the Kingdom of Kongo to include the neighbouring state of Loango and other areas now encompassed by the current Republic of Congo.

 

The Mwene Kongos often gave the governorships to members of their family or its clients. As this centralization increased, the allied provinces gradually lost influence until their powers were only symbolic, manifested in Mbata, once a co-kingdom, but by 1620 simply known by the title "Grandfather of the King of Kongo" (Nkaka'ndi a Mwene Kongo).

 

The high concentration of population around Mbanza Kongo and its outskirts played a critical role in the centralization of Kongo. The capital was a densely settled area in an otherwise sparsely populated region where rural population densities probably did not exceed 5 persons per square kilometer. Early Portuguese travelers described Mbanza Kongo as a large city, the size of the Portuguese town of Évora as it was in 1491. By the end of the sixteenth century, Kongo's population was probably close to half a million people in a core region of some 130,000 square kilometers. By the early seventeenth century the city and its hinterland had a population of around 100,000, or one out of every five inhabitants in the Kingdom (according to baptismal statistics compiled by Jesuit priests). This concentration allowed resources, soldiers and surplus foodstuffs to be readily available at the request of the king. This made the king overwhelmingly powerful and caused the kingdom to become highly centralized.

 

By the time of the first recorded contact with the Europeans, the Kingdom of Kongo was a highly developed state at the center of an extensive trading network. Apart from natural resources and ivory, the country manufactured and traded copperware, ferrous metal goods, raffia cloth, and pottery. The Kongo people spoke in the Kikongo language. The eastern regions, especially that part known as the Seven Kingdoms of Kongo dia Nlaza (or in Kikongo Mumbwadi or "the Seven", were particularly famous for the production of cloth.

 

The Luba state coalesced some 100 years after the Kongo and to the east of it, in the upper reaches of the Lualaba River, around lakes Upemba and Kisale. The Lunda kingdom emerged 15th century through the unification of its composite chiefdoms in the south west on the patterns laid down by their Luba neighbours. In the sixteenth century its territory was overrun by the expanding Luba empire, and, unable to resist the invaders, some of the Lunda migrated to Angola where they founded new states.

 

The kingdom of Kuba was founded to the north of the Kasai River, and of its tributary the Sankura, by invaders from the west in about 1600. The complex forest-river-savannah ecology of its territory enabled it to develop into a vigorous trading state that was able to maintain its integrity until it fell to the advance of Belgian colonial expansion (Giblin 1999)


Nzinga Mbemba (Afonso I), Letters to the King of Portugal (1526)

The Portuguese were the first European power to begin actively exploring the coastline of Africa. In their quest to reach the valuable trade routes of the Indian Ocean, they established a number of fortified bases and trading outposts southward along the western coast of Africa in the late 15th century. Contact between Portugal and the west African kingdom of Kongo began in 1483; for several decades ambassadors, trade goods, and ideas flowed in both directions between the two states. However, over time the increasing presence and eventual dominance of Europeans, their products, and their promotion of slavery severely disrupted Kongolese society. In 1526, the king of the Kongo, Nzinga Mbemba (who by this time had adopted the Christian name of Afonso I) began writing a series of letters to the Portuguese King Jo�o III, appealing for an end to the slave trade. Twenty-four letters were written in all -- three are reproduced here.

 

Sir, Your Highness should know how our Kingdom is being lost in so many ways that it is convenient to provide for the necessary remedy, since this is caused by the excessive freedom given by your agents and officials to the men and merchants who are allowed to come to this Kingdom to setup shops with goods and many things which have been prohibited by us, and which they spread throughout our Kingdoms and Domains in such an abundance that many of our vassals, whom we had in obedience, do not comply because they have the things in greater abundance than we ourselves; and it was with these things that we had them content and subjected under our vassalage and jurisdiction, so it is doing a great harm not only to the service of God, but the security and peace of our Kingdoms and State as well.

 

And we cannot reckon how great the damage is, since the mentioned merchants are taking every day our natives, sons of the land and the sons of our noblemen and vassals and our relatives, because the thieves and men of bad conscience grab them wishing to have the things and wares of this Kingdom which they are ambitious of, they grab them and get them to be sold; and so great, Sir, is the corruption and licentiousness that our country is being completely depopulated, and Your Highness should not agree with this nor accept it as in your service. And to avoid it we need from those Kingdoms no more than some priests and a few people to reach in schools, and no other goods except wine and flour for the holy sacrament, That is why we beg of Your Highness to help and assist us in this matter, commanding your factors that they should nor send here either merchants or wares, because it is our will that in these Kingdoms there should not be any trade of slaves nor outlet for them. Concerning what is referred to above, again we beg of Your Highness to agree with it, since otherwise we cannot remedy such an obvious damage, Pray Our Lord in His mercy to have Your Highness under His guard and let you do forever the things of His service, I kiss your hands many times.

 

At our town of Kongo, written on the sixth day of July; Jo�o Teixeira did it in 1526, The King, Dom Afonso.

{On the back of this letter the following can be read: To the most powerful and excellent prince Dow Jo�o, King our Brother.}

 

Moreover, Sir, in our Kingdoms there is another great inconvenience which is of little service to God, and this is that many of our people, keenly desirous as they are of the wares and things of your Kingdoms, which are brought here by your people, and in order to satisfy their voracious appetite, seize many of our people, freed and exempt men, and very often it happens that they kidnap even noblemen and the sons of noblemen, and our relatives, and take them to be sold to the white men who are in our Kingdoms; and for this purpose they have concealed them; and others are brought during the night so that they might not be recognized.

 

And as soon as they are taken by the white men they are immediately ironed and branded with fire, and when they are carried to be embarked, if they are caught by our guards' men the whites allege that they have bought them but they cannot say from whom, so that it is our duty to do justice and to restore to the freemen their freedom, but it cannot be done if your subjects feel offended, as they claim to be.

 

And to avoid such a great evil we passed a law so that any white man living in our Kingdoms and wanting to purchase goods in any way should first inform three of our noblemen and officials of our court whom we rely upon in this matter, and these are Dom Pedro Manipanza and Dom Manuel Manissaba, our chief usher, and Gon�alo Pires our chief freighter, who should investigate if the mentioned goods are captives or free men, and if cleared by them there will be no further doubt nor embargo for them to be taken and embarked, But if the white men do not comply with it they will lose the aforementioned goods. And if we do them this favor and concession it is for the part Your Highness has in it, since we know that it is in your service too that these goods are taken from our Kingdom, otherwise we should not consent to this�

 

Sir, Your Highness has been kind enough to write to us saying that we should ask in our letters for anything we need, and that we shall be provided with everything, and as the peace and the health of our Kingdom depend on us, and as there are among us old folks and people who have lived for many days, it happens that we have continuously many and different diseases which put us very often in such a weakness that we reach almost the last extreme; and the same happens to our children, relatives and natives owing to the lack in this country of physicians and surgeons who might know how to cure properly such diseases. And as we have got neither dispensaries nor drugs which might help us in this forlornness, many of those who had been already confirmed and instructed in the holy faith of Our Lord Jesus Christ perish and die; and the rest of the people in their majority cure themselves with herbs and breads and other ancient methods, so that they put all their faith in the mentioned herbs and ceremonies if they live, and believe that they are saved if they die; and this is not much in the service of God.

 

And to avoid such a great error and inconvenience, since it is from God in the first place and then from your Kingdoms and from Your Highness that all the good and drugs and medicines have come to save us, we beg of you to be agreeable and kind enough to send us two physicians and two apothecaries and one surgeon, so that they may come with their drugstores and all the necessary things to stay in our kingdoms, because we are in extreme need of them all and each of them. We shall do them all good and shall benefit them by all means, since they are sent by Your Highness, whom we thank for your work in their coming. We beg of Your Highness as a great favor to do this for us, because besides being good in itself it is in the service of God as we have said above.

 

From: Basil Davidson, trans., The African Past, London: Curtis Brown Ltd., 1964.

http://www.wadsworth.com/history_d/special_features/ext/world_hist/unbound/product/wawhm01c/content/whis/modules/empire/historicaldocuments/emp_rd_mbemba.htm


Emanuele Ne Vunda (died 1608), also Antonio Emanuele Ne Vunda, or Antonio Emmanuele Funta, the ambassador from Congo, sent by the king of Congo Alvaro II to Pope Paul V in 1604–1608Ne-Vunda traveled through Brazil and Spain and only reached Rome on 3 January 1608, but he died two days later of illness.

Hasekura Rokuemon Tsunenaga (or "Francisco Felipe Faxicura", as he was baptized in Spain) (1571–1622)

In the years 1613 through 1620, Hasekura headed a diplomatic mission to the Vatican in Rome, traveling through New Spain (arriving in Acapulco and departing from Veracruz) and visiting various ports-of-call in Europe. This historic mission is called the Keichō Embassy

 

It is interesting given the wider world context and the eventual different out come of such visitations and contact for while the Japanese subsequently beheaded their Christians converts driving them under ground and throwing out all forigners for the next 200yrs ,the Kongolese allowed the Portuguese continued access and meddling to take root,resulting in the brake-up of their kingdom resulting in war with a very powerful freedom loving Queen named Nizinga.



Nzinga of the Ndongo and Matamba

 

Queen Nzingha was born to Ngola (King) Kiluanji and Kangela in 1583. According to tradition, she was named Nzingha because her umbilical cord was wrapped around her neck (the Kimbundu verb kujinga means to twist or turn). It was said to be an indication that the person who had this characteristic would be proud and haughty, and a wise woman told her mother that Nzingha will become queen one day. According to her recollections later in life, she was greatly favoured by her father, who allowed her to witness as he governed his kingdom, and who carried her with him to war. She also had a brother, Mbandi and two sisters Kifunji and Mukambu. She lived during a period when the Atlantic slave trade and the consolidation of power by the Portuguese in the region were growing rapidly.

 

In the 16th century, the Portuguese position in the slave trade was threatened by England and France. As a result, the Portuguese shifted their slave-trading activities to The Congo and South West Africa. Mistaking the title of the ruler (ngola) for the name of the country, the Portuguese called the land of the Mbundu people "Angola"—the name by which it is still known today.

In 1662, at a conference with a governor of Portugal, he deliberately failed to provide a chair for her. Her loyal subjects knelt down before her and she sat upon their backs.

Nzinga first appears in historical records as the envoy of her brother, the ngiolssa Ngola Mbande, at a peace conference with the Portuguese governor João Correia de Sousa in Luanda in 1599.

In the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, states on the Central African coast found their economic power and territorial control threatened by Portuguese attempts to establish a colony at Luanda (in present-day Angola). Many of these states had become regional powers through trade in African slaves. It was the growing demand for this human labor in New World colonies such as Brazil that ultimately led Portugal to seek military and economic control of this region. Old trading partners came under military attack by Portuguese soldiers and indigenous African raiders in search of captives for the slave trade, and rulers were forced to adapt to these new circumstances or face certain destruction. One leader who proved to be adept at overcoming these difficulties was the queen of Ndongo, Ana Nzinga.

 

In 1624, Ana Nzinga inherited rule of Ndongo, a state to the east of Luanda populated primarily by Mbundu peoples. At that moment, the kingdom was under attack from both Portuguese as well as neighboring African aggressors. Nzinga realized that, to remain viable, Ndongo had to reposition itself as an intermediary rather than a supply zone in the slave trade. To achieve this, she allied Ndongo with Portugal, simultaneously acquiring a partner in its fight against its African enemies and ending Portuguese slave raiding in the kingdom. Ana Nzinga's baptism, with the Portuguese colonial governor serving as godfather, sealed this relationship. By 1626, however, Portugal had betrayed Ndongo, and Nzinga was forced to flee with her people further west, where they founded a new state at Matamba, well beyond the reach of the Portuguese. To bolster Matamba's martial power, Nzinga offered sanctuary to runaway slaves and Portuguese-trained African soldiers and adopted a form of military organization known as kilombo, in which youths renounced family ties and were raised communally in militias. She also fomented rebellion within Ndongo itself, which was now governed indirectly by the Portuguese through a puppet ruler. Nzinga found an ally in the Netherlands, which seized Luanda for its own mercantile purposes in 1641. Their combined forces were insufficient to drive the Portuguese out of Angola, however, and after Luanda was reclaimed by the Portuguese, Nzinga was again forced to retreat to Matamba. From this point on, Nzinga focused on developing Matamba as a trading power by capitalizing on its position as the gateway to the Central African interior. By the time of her death in 1661, Matamba was a formidable commercial state that dealt with the Portuguese colony on an equal footing. Nzinga, who reconverted to Christianity before her death at the age of eighty-one, became a sensation in Europe following the 1769 publication of Jean-Louis Castilhon's colorful "biography," Zingha, Reine d'Angola, in Paris.

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/pwmn_2/hd_pwmn_2.htm

Renaissance Lisbon was home to the highest percentage of blacks in Europe at the time, ranging in status from slaves to knights.

 

This reality is reflected in an unusual painting made by an unknown artist, probably from the Netherlands, of the Lisbon waterfront in the late 16th century, where blacks and whites from a variety of social strata co-exist in a public square.

 

 

 

I suspect the blacks on horse back of military baring are Kongolese upper classes who joined the Knighthood some of the others may well have been slaves and middle class trader types, the slaves were not necessarily Kongolese mind you, if this is from 1570-80..keeping in mind that very strong ties were made with the Kingdom of the Kongo and Portugal during that era.

 

 

 

You can follow this link if you want.

http://www.artnews.com/2012/10/25/image-of-africans-in-western-art/





Vinca Culture. What you should know...

Posted by big mike M on March 21, 2013 at 2:40 PM Comments comments (5)

There seems to be a alot of controversy regarding if Vinca is a truely a civilization or not. I'm going to personally touch base on this subject one last time by correcting some flaws revolving around it. First thing I'm going to touch base on...One thing people say about Vinca is that it is older than both Ancient Egypt and Ancient Sumer. Well of course it is. It was a Neolithic culture so of course it's older than Sumer and Egypt which are Bronze Age civilizations. Still, the predecessors of Sumer and especially Egypt are much older than Vinca since they date to Epipaleolithic times.

 

As for Vinca, we know it was a Stone Age complex that used pictographic writing created complex burials and even organized settlements. We don't know what language these people spoke only that their society was based on agriculture and hunting. 

Now I am going to touch base on the Ancient Egypt vs. Vinca controversy.

Ancient Egyptian civilization had began roughly around 3100 B.C...No European Civilization began that early besides Neolithic cultures, that were not civilizations and comparable to Ancient Egypt to the bit.

Some Eurocentrics like to use Vinca because it started around 5500 B.C and they try to claim it as a civilization and so they claim it predates  Ancient Egypt. True Vinca does predate the Ancient Egyptian civilization, but not only is Vinca just NEOLITHIC CULTURE, but it’s still an lose-lose siltation for those who claim Vinca Predates Ancient Egypt.  Because the Neolithic Egypt started as early as 6,000 B.C.

 

"By about 6000 BC the Neolithic culture rooted in the Nile Valley. During the Neolithic era, several predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt."

http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/hellochina/egyptambassador09/2009-08/24/content_8607602.htm

Not only that...A neolithic civilization at kerma seems to go back to 5000 b.c. as well or earlier.

 

A neolithic town was found at kerma at least around 4800 b.c..

It may have gone back to 5000 b.c. from some other info I have read.

 

If it goes back to 4800 b.c. it will still make the nile valley home of the first civilization on earth. Now I hav always stressed and believed that Sumer was the cradle of civilization, but I am to hearing new news.

It's possible that this Vinca civilization did not developed towns,just villages. There has been nothing that has indicated that Vinca has developed towns or cities Most people when defending Vinca just throw that in. Also Vinca did not have a calendar like nubia at that time or complex burials so it could not be a civilization like Nubia at that time, but a complex culture like some of the native american cultures of North America.

 

Vinča culture

The Vinča culture, also known as Turdaș culture or Turdaș-Vinča culture, is a Neolithic archaeological culture in Southeastern Europe, dated to the period 5500–4500 BCE. Named for its type site, Vinča-Belo Brdo, a large tell settlement discovered by Serbian archaeologist Miloje Vasić in 1908, it represents the material remains of a prehistoric society mainly distinguished by its settlement pattern and ritual behaviour. Farming technology first introduced to the region during the First Temperate Neolithic was developed further by the Vinča culture, fuelling a population boom and producing some of the largest settlements in prehistoric Europe. These settlements maintained a high degree of cultural uniformity through the long-distance exchange of ritual items, but were probably not politically unified. Various styles of zoomorphic and anthropomorphic figurines are hallmarks of the culture, as are the Vinča symbols, which some conjecture to be an early form of proto-writing. Though not conventionally considered part of the Chalcolithic or "Copper Age", the Vinča culture provides the earliest known example of copper metallurgy.

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Vinca seems to have settlements the size of towns at least or a city for it' time from what i have read just now but that's still will not make a culture a civilization.

 

Other elements must come into play at least.

 

To be called a civilization a culture must have division of labor, agriculture, structured goverment, organized warfare, social stratification,town or city,complex burials,and calendar(if there is no writing). 

Nubia and sudan had all of this by 5000 b.c. or 4800 b.c. at least.

 

quote-

A stone circle at Nabta Playa in Egypt's(really lower nubia) Western Desert is thought to act as a calendar and was constructed around 7000 BC.

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Çatalhöyük was the size of a city but they did not have most of what makes the core elements of a city or civilization,so even if they had the size they were still not a city of what I have learn recently and would not be called a civilization.

It would just be a large village or a proto-city.

 

A Civilization that has towns could function like city,that's why they could be called civilization combined with other elements.

 

A settlement the size of a town or city like Vinca would not still be called a civilization because that settlement does not function like a town or city because of other elements missing.

 

 

Jericho was the size of a town but again it did not have the elements that which makes it a civilization from what I learned. And Jericho is dated 9000 BC which is much older compared to Vinca.

 

All those other factors have to come into play like I said above, so these others were just complex cultures.

 

They still were not like Nubia at this time making Africa possibly the home of the first civilization.


A complex culture nabta playa is still older then Vinca.

Nabta Playa was once a large basin in the Nubian Desert, located approximately 800 kilometers south of modern day Cairo[1] or about 100 kilometers west of Abu Simbel in southern Egypt,[2] 22° 32' north, 30° 42' east. Today the region is characterized by numerous archaeological sites.

____________________________________________________

Nabta Playa would be older than Vinca if it was a civilization. It had more of the basic elements to be called civilization more so by 8000 or 7000 b.c. AT LEAST.

 

 

The only thing missing is that they still lived in villages and their settlements were not large enough to be called a towns,but if they did it could be called more clearly a civilization by 7000 b.c. to 6000 or around there at least.

 

 

This is what it had:

quote-

By the 7th millennium BC, exceedingly large and organized settlements were found in the region, relying on deep wells for sources of water. Huts were constructed in straight rows. Sustenance included fruit, legumes, millets, sorghum and tubers.

 

Also in the late 7th millennium BC, but a little later than the time referred to above, imported goats and sheep, apparently from Southwest Asia , appear. Many large hearths also appear.

 

High level of organization

Archaeological discoveries reveal that these prehistoric peoples led livelihoods seemingly at a higher level of organization than their contemporaries who lived closer to the Nile Valley.

 

The people of Nabta Playa had:

above-ground and below-ground stone construction,

villages designed in pre-planned arrangements, and

deep wells that held water throughout the year.

Findings also indicate that the region was occupied only seasonally, most likely only in the summer period, when the local lake filled with water for grazing cattle.

 

Religious ties to ancient Egypt

By the 6th millennium BC, evidence of a prehistoric religion or cult appears, with a number of sacrificed cattle buried in stone-roofed chambers lined with clay. It has been suggested that the associated cattle cult indicated in Nabta Playa marks an early evolution of Ancient Egypt's Hathor cult. For example, Hathor was worshipped as a nighttime protector in desert regions (see Serabit el-Khadim).

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

To directly quote professors Wendorf and Schild:

"...there are many aspects of political and ceremonial life in the Predynastic and Old Kingdom that reflects a strong impact from Saharan cattle pastoralists..."

 

Nevertheless, though the religious practices of the region involving cattle suggest ties to Ancient Egypt"

Egyptologist Mark Lehner cautions:

 

 

"It makes sense, but not in a facile, direct way. You can't go straight from these megaliths to the pyramid of Djoser.

 

Other subterranean complexes are also found in Nabta Playa, one of which included evidence of perhaps an early Nubian attempt at sculpture.

 

One of the world's earliest known examples of archeoastronomy."

______________________________________________________________________________

 

Now some say Nabta Playa should be called a civilization because it had all these other element mentioned, and maybe it should.

If you could call it a civilization then the first civilization on earth would have started in lower nubia first.

 

I have mix feelings and at times I feel it should be called civilization,but it's clear the settlements no matter how complex must be at least the size of a town even if the villages function like a town or city...



Moving on now....


Another issue is that some people try to claim the Bosnia pyramids are man made. That is another flaw since..."In analysing the site, its known history, and the excavations; geologists, archeologists, and other scientists have concluded that they are natural formations and that there are no signs of human building involved.[2][3][4] Additionally, scientists have criticised the Bosnian authorities for supporting the pyramid claim saying: "This scheme is a cruel hoax on an unsuspecting public and has no place in the world of genuine science."

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bosnian_pyramids


National Geographic has also touched base on this sitution also..

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/05/pyramid-bosnia-1.html

Moving along now...

What people also don't tell you is that Europe during the Neolithic era was influenced by outside sources...Including Vinca.

Prehistoric contacts over the Straits of Gibraltar

indicated by genetic analysis of Iberian

Bronze Age cattle.

___________________________________________________________________________

QUOTE:

"Previously, the appearance of the Late Atlantic Neolithic culture had been placed at a significantly later date than the Egyptian culture, and this chronology and the cultural similarity were interpreted as implying that Egypt was the original source (14). However, more accurate radiocarbon dates obtained from Late Atlantic Neolithic culture sites subsequently redated the origin of this culture to being approximately the same as that of the predynastic Badarian Egyptian culture (15), leading to the hypothesis that these two cultures might derive from a common area, perhaps through pastoral groups living in the Sahara. The culture linked to the Late Atlantic Neolithic period is known to have been dedicated almost exclusively to cattle breeding, secondarily complemented by sheep and goat breeding (14), suggesting that an investigation of the origin of Iberian cattle may offer further insight into early Iberian–African cultural contacts."

Source:

http://www.pnas.org/content/102/24/8431.full.pdf+html?sid=8370fb44-581a-4cf7-bcaf-da0a09e388bb

__________

 

Anthropological evidence, all proves Africans were in Europe over 6000 years ago and modern inhabitants also prove this by carrying said African markers...

Also....

African genetic markers in the Balkans.

__________

"“The presence of E-M78* Y chromosomes in the Balkans (two Albanians), previously described virtually only in northeast Africa, upper Nile, gives rise to the question of what the original source of the E-M78 may have been. Correlations between human-occupation sites and radiocarbon-dated climatic fluctuations in the eastern Sahara and Nile Valley during the Holocene provide a framework for interpreting the main southeast European centric distribution of E-V13. A recent archaeological study reveals that during a desiccation period in North Africa, while the eastern Sahara was depopulated, a refugium existed on the border of present-day Sudan and Egypt, near Lake Nubia, until the onset of a humid phase around 8500 BC (radiocarbon-calibrated date). The rapid arrival of wet conditions during this Early Holocene period provided an impetus for population movement into habitat that was quickly settled afterwards. Hg E-M78* representatives, although rare overall, still occur in Egypt, which is a hub for the distribution of the various geographically localized M78-related sub-clades. The northward-moving rainfall belts during this period could have also spurred a rapid migration of Mesolithic foragers northwards in Africa, the Levant and ultimately onwards to Asia Minor and Europe, where they each eventually differentiated their regionally distinctive branches.”

 

__________




It is a historical facr that Neolithic culture was introduced from the outside, likely southwest Asia, via peoples of African and Southwest Asian ancestry. This reflected both in DNA NRY E1b1b and mtDNA N1a as well as skeletal remains showing 'Negroid' features. Yes Negroid features and I'll get into that later.

Larry Angel (1972): one can identify Negroid traits of nose and prognathism appearing in Natufian latest hunters (McCown, 1939) and in Anatolian and Macedonian first farmers probably from Nubia via the predecesors of the Badarians and Tasians.

 

And more recently from Brace (2005): The surprise is that the Neolithic peoples of Europe and their Bronze Age successors are not closely related to the modern inhabitants, although the prehistoric/modern ties are somewhat more apparent in southern Europe. It is a further surprise that the Epipalaeolithic Natufian of Israel from whom the Neolithic realm was assumed to arise has a clear link to Sub-Saharan Africa...

 

When canonical variates are plotted, neither sample ties in with Cro-Magnon as was once suggested. The data treated here support the idea that the Neolithic moved out of the Near East into the circum-Mediterranean areas and Europe by a process of demic diffusion but that subsequently the in situ residents of those areas, derived from the Late Pleistocene inhabitants, absorbed both the agricultural life way and the people who had brought it.

This is the reason why Neolithic folks of Balkan Europe such as in Vinca, Bulgaria and Lerna, Greece display 'Negroid' features.

These Bulgaria Skulls show Negroid features.

A Negroid skull...



Conclusion:

From what said...I would say Vinca was a complex culture and was to an extent influenced by outside people with evidence of DNA and cranial.





Early Europeans

Posted by big mike M on December 20, 2012 at 10:45 PM Comments comments (0)

(Sep. 4, 2009) — Analysis of ancient DNA from skeletons suggests that Europe's first farmers were not the descendants of the people who settled the area after the retreat of the ice sheets. Instead, the early farmers probably migrated into major areas of central and eastern Europe about 7,500 years ago, bringing domesticated plants and animals with them , says Barbara Bramanti from Mainz University in Germany and colleagues.

The researchers analyzed DNA from hunter-gatherer and early farmer burials, and compared those to each other and to the DNA of modern Europeans. They conclude that there is little evidence of a direct genetic link between the hunter-gatherers and the early farmers, and 82 percent of the types of mtDNA found in the hunter-gatherers are relatively rare in central Europeans today.

For more than a century archaeologists, anthropologists, linguists, and more recently, geneticists, have argued about who the ancestors of Europeans living today were. We know that people lived in Europe before and after the last big ice age and managed to survive by hunting and gathering. We also know that farming spread into Europe from the Near East over the last 9,000 years, thereby increasing the amount of food that can be produced by as much as 100-fold. But the extent to which modern Europeans are descended from either of those two groups has eluded scientists despite many attempts to answer this question.

Now, a team from Mainz University in Germany, together with researchers from UCL (University College London) and Cambridge, have found that the first farmers in central and northern Europe could not have been the descendents of the hunter-gatherers that came before them. But what is even more surprising, they also found that modern Europeans couldn't solely be the descendents of either the hunter-gatherer alone, or the first farmers alone, and are unlikely to be a mixture of just those two groups.

"This is really odd" , said Professor Mark Thomas, a population geneticist at UCL and co-author of the study. "For more than a century the debate has centered around how much we are the descendents of European hunter-gatherers and how much we are the descendents of Europe's early farmers. For the first time we are now able to directly compare the genes of these Stone Age Europeans, and what we find is that some DNA types just aren't there - despite being common in Europeans today."

Humans arrived in Europe 45,000 years ago and replaced the Neandertals. From that period on, European hunter-gatherers experienced lots of climatic changes, including the last Ice Age. After the end of the Ice Age, some 11,000 years ago, the hunter-gatherer lifestyle survived for a couple of thousand years but was then gradually replaced by agriculture. The question was whether this change in lifestyle from hunter-gatherer to farmer was brought to Europe by new people, or whether only the idea of farming spread. The new results from the Mainz-led team seems to solve much of this long standing debate.

"Our analysis shows that there is no direct continuity between hunter-gatherers and farmers in Central Europe," says Prof Joachim Burger. "As the hunter-gatherers were there first, the farmers must have immigrated into the area."

The study identifies the Carpathian Basin as the origin for early Central European farmers. "It seems that farmers of the Linearbandkeramik culture immigrated from what is modern day Hungary around 7,500 years ago into Central Europe, initially without mixing with local hunter gatherers," says Barbara Bramanti, first author of the study. "This is surprising, because there were cultural contacts between the locals and the immigrants, but, it appears, no genetic exchange of women."

The new study confirms what Joachim Burger´s team showed in 2005; that the first farmers were not the direct ancestors of modern European. Burger says "We are still searching for those remaining components of modern European ancestry. European hunter-gatherers and early farmers alone are not enough. But new ancient DNA data from later periods in European prehistory may shed also light on this in the future."

Slavery of Europeans and Native North African population

Posted by big mike M on December 18, 2012 at 1:40 PM Comments comments (0)

 

http://www.jihadwatch.org/2008/09/over-one-million-european-christians-kidnapped-and-enslaved-by-muslims.html

COLUMBUS, Ohio – A new study suggests that a million or more European Christians were enslaved by Muslims in North Africa between 1530 and 1780 – a far greater number than had ever been estimated before.

In a new book, Robert Davis, professor of history at Ohio State University, developed a unique methodology to calculate the number of white Christians who were enslaved along Africa’s Barbary Coast, arriving at much higher slave population estimates than any previous studies had found.

Most other accounts of slavery along the Barbary coast didn’t try to estimate the number of slaves, or only looked at the number of slaves in particular cities, Davis said. Most previously estimated slave counts have thus tended to be in the thousands, or at most in the tens of thousands. Davis, by contrast, has calculated that between 1 million and 1.25 million European Christians were captured and forced to work in North Africa from the 16th to 18th centuries.

Davis’s new estimates appear in the book Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800 (Palgrave Macmillan).

“Enslavement was a very real possibility for anyone who traveled in the Mediterranean, or who lived along the shores in places like Italy, France, Spain and Portugal, and even as far north as England and Iceland.”

“Much of what has been written gives the impression that there were not many slaves and minimizes the impact that slavery had on Europe,” Davis said. “Most accounts only look at slavery in one place, or only for a short period of time. But when you take a broader, longer view, the massive scope of this slavery and its powerful impact become clear.”

Davis said it is useful to compare this Mediterranean slavery to the Atlantic slave trade that brought black Africans to the Americas. Over the course of four centuries, the Atlantic slave trade was much larger about 10 to 12 million black Africans were brought to the Americas. But from 1500 to 1650, when trans-Atlantic slaving was still in its infancy, more white Christian slaves were probably taken to Barbary than black African slaves to the Americas, according to Davis.

“One of the things that both the public and many scholars have tended to take as given is that slavery was always racial in nature – that only blacks have been slaves. But that is not true,” Davis said. “We cannot think of slavery as something that only white people did to black people.”

During the time period Davis studied, it was religion and ethnicity, as much as race, that determined who became slaves.

“Enslavement was a very real possibility for anyone who traveled in the Mediterranean, or who lived along the shores in places like Italy, France, Spain and Portugal, and even as far north as England and Iceland,” he said.

Pirates (called corsairs) from cities along the Barbary Coast in north Africa – cities such as Tunis and Algiers – would raid ships in the Mediterranean and Atlantic, as well as seaside villages to capture men, women and children. The impact of these attacks were devastating – France, England, and Spain each lost thousands of ships, and long stretches of the Spanish and Italian coasts were almost completely abandoned by their inhabitants. At its peak, the destruction and depopulation of some areas probably exceeded what European slavers would later inflict on the African interior.

Although hundreds of thousands of Christian slaves were taken from Mediterranean countries, Davis noted, the effects of Muslim slave raids was felt much further away: it appears, for example, that through most of the 17th century the English lost at least 400 sailors a year to the slavers.

Even Americans were not immune. For example, one American slave reported that 130 other American seamen had been enslaved by the Algerians in the Mediterranean and Atlantic just between 1785 and 1793.

Davis said the vast scope of slavery in North Africa has been ignored and minimized, in large part because it is on no one’s agenda to discuss what happened.

The enslavement of Europeans doesn’t fit the general theme of European world conquest and colonialism that is central to scholarship on the early modern era, he said. Many of the countries that were victims of slavery, such as France and Spain, would later conquer and colonize the areas of North Africa where their citizens were once held as slaves. Maybe because of this history, Western scholars have thought of the Europeans primarily as “evil colonialists” and not as the victims they sometimes were, Davis said.

Davis said another reason that Mediterranean slavery has been ignored or minimized has been that there have not been good estimates of the total number of people enslaved. People of the time – both Europeans and the Barbary Coast slave owners – did not keep detailed, trustworthy records of the number of slaves. In contrast, there are extensive records that document the number of Africans brought to the Americas as slaves.

So Davis developed a new methodology to come up with reasonable estimates of the number of slaves along the Barbary Coast. Davis found the best records available indicating how many slaves were at a particular location at a single time. He then estimated how many new slaves it would take to replace slaves as they died, escaped or were ransomed.

“The only way I could come up with hard numbers is to turn the whole problem upside down – figure out how many slaves they would have to capture to maintain a certain level,” he said. “It is not the best way to make population estimates, but it is the only way with the limited records available.”

Putting together such sources of attrition as deaths, escapes, ransomings, and conversions, Davis calculated that about one-fourth of slaves had to be replaced each year to keep the slave population stable, as it apparently was between 1580 and 1680. That meant about 8,500 new slaves had to be captured each year. Overall, this suggests nearly a million slaves would have been taken captive during this period. Using the same methodology, Davis has estimated as many as 475,000 additional slaves were taken in the previous and following centuries.

The result is that between 1530 and 1780 there were almost certainly 1 million and quite possibly as many as 1.25 million white, European Christians enslaved by the Muslims of the Barbary Coast.

Davis said his research into the treatment of these slaves suggests that, for most of them, their lives were every bit as difficult as that of slaves in America.

“As far as daily living conditions, the Mediterranean slaves certainly didn’t have it better,” he said.

While African slaves did grueling labor on sugar and cotton plantations in the Americas, European Christian slaves were often worked just as hard and as lethally – in quarries, in heavy construction, and above all rowing the corsair galleys themselves.

Davis said his findings suggest that this invisible slavery of European Christians deserves more attention from scholars.

“We have lost the sense of how large enslavement could loom for those who lived around the Mediterranean and the threat they were under,” he said. “Slaves were still slaves, whether they are black or white, and whether they suffered in America or North Africa.”

 

 

The Greeks and Romans called the Natives of North Africa Mauros meaning black...

This is NOT BLACK thus not native..(Result of Slavery and white Greek/Vandal invasions):

 

The Modern Kabyle are 40% Eurasian male and nearly 75% Eurasian female.

Yet their African Y chromosome E3b originates in East Africa..(Like the Original Berbers-see the Siwa)..

890 –“The Kabyles or Kabaily of Algerian and Tunisian territories…besides tillage, work the mines contained in their mountains…They live in huts made of branches of trees and covered with clay which resemble the Magalia of the old Numidians…They are of middle stature, their complexion brown and sometimes nearly black.” Written in The Encyclopedia Britannica: Dictionary of Arts, Sciences and General Literature Henry G. Allen Company p. 261 Volume I 1890.



 


Slavers:

Body proportions in Late Pleistocene Europe and modern human origins

Posted by big mike M on December 16, 2012 at 3:40 PM Comments comments (0)

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047248496901116

Body proportions in Late Pleistocene Europe and modern human origins*1

Trenton W. Holliday

Department of Anthropology, The College of William and Mary, P.O. Box 8795, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187-8795, U.S.A.

Abstract

Body proportions covary with climate, apparently as the result of climatic selection. Ontogenetic research and migrant studies have demonstrated that body proportions are largely genetically controlled and are under low selective rates; thus studies of body form can provide evidence for evolutionarily short-term dispersals and/or gene flow. Following these observations, competing models of modern human origins yield different predictions concerning body proportion shifts in Late Pleistocene Europe. Replacement predicts that the earliest modern Europeans will possess “tropical” body proportions (assuming Africa is the center of origin), while Regional Continuity permits only minor shifts in body shape, due to climatic change and/or improved cultural buffering. This study tests these predictions via analyses of osteometric data reflective of trunk height and breadth, limb proportions and relative body mass for samples of Early Upper Paleolithic (EUP), Late Upper Paleolithic (LUP) and Mesolithic (MES) humans and 13 recent African and European populations. Results reveal a clear tendency for the EUP sample to cluster with recent Africans, while LUP and MES samples cluster with recent Europeans. These results refute the hypothesis of local continuity in Europe, and are consistent with an interpretation of elevated gene flow (and population dispersal?) from Africa, followed by subsequent climatic adaptation to colder conditions. These data do not, however, preclude the possibility of some (albeit small) contribution of genes from Neandertals to succeeding populations, as is postulated in Bräuer’s “Afro-European Sapiens” model.

Narrow nose native to Africa

Posted by big mike M on October 14, 2012 at 8:05 PM Comments comments (0)

Different features among Africans,

particularly EAST AFRICANS, like

narrow noses are not due to different

"race" mixes but are part of the built-in

physical diversity and variation of

African peoples.

Narrow noses appear in

the oldest African populations for

example, in Kenya's Gamble Cave

complex. East Africans like Somalians or

Kenyans do not need any outside race

"mix" or migration to make them look

the way they do.

QUOTE(s):

".. all their features can be found in

several living populations of East Africa,

like the Tutsi of Rwanda and Burundi,

who are very dark skinned and differ

greatly from Europeans in a number of

body proportions.. There is every reason

to believe that they are ancestral to the

living 'Elongated East Africans'. Neither

of these populations, fossil and modern,

should be considered to be closely

related to the populations of Europe and

western Asia.. In skin colour, the Tutsi

are darker than the Hutu, in the reverse

direction to that leading to the

caucasoids. Lip thickness provides a

similar case: on an average the lips of the

Tutsi are thicker than those of the Hutu."

[Jean Hiernaux, The People of Africa

(1975), pgs 42-43, 62-63)

"In sub-Saharan Africa, many

anthropological characters show a wide

range of population means or

frequencies. In some of them, the whole

world range is covered in the

sub-continent. Here live the shortest and

the tallest human populations, the one

with the highest and the one with the

lowest nose, the one with the thickest

and the one with the thinnest lips in the

world. In this area, the range of the

average nose widths covers 92 per cent

of the world range: only a narrow range

of extremely low means are absent from

the African record. Means for head

diameters cover about 80 per cent of the

world range; 60 per cent is the

corresponding value for a variable once

cherished by physical anthropologists,

the cephalic index, or ratio of the head

width to head length expressed as a

percentage....."

- Jean Hiernaux, "The People of Africa"

1975 p.53, 54

"Prehistoric human crania from

Bromhead's Site, Willey's Kopje, Makalia

Burial Site, Nakuru, and other localities

in the Eastern Rift Valley of Kenya are

reassessed using measurements and a

multivariate statistical approach.

Materials available for comparison

include series of Bushman and Hottentot

crania. South and East African Negroes,

and Egyptians. Up to 34 cranial

measurements taken on these series are

utilized to construct three multiple

discriminant frameworks, each of which

can assign modern individuals to a

correct group with considerable

accuracy. When the prehistoric crania are

classified with the help of these

discriminants, results indicate that several

of the skulls are best grouped with

modern Negroes. This is especially clear

in the case of individuals from

Bromhead's Site, Willey's Kopje, and

Nakuru, and the evidence hardly suggests

post-Pleistocene domination of the Rift

and surrounding territory by

"Mediterranean" Caucasoids, as has been

claimed. Recent linguistic and

archaeological findings are also

reviewed, and these seem to support

application of the term Nilotic Negro to

the early Rift populations." (Rightmire

GP. New studies of post-Pleistocene

human skeletal remains from the Rift

Valley, Kenya. Am J Phys Anthropol.

1975 May;42(3):351-69. )

"....inhabitants of East Africa right on the

equator have appreciably longer,

narrower, and higher noses than people

in the Congo at the same latitude. A

former generation of anthropologists

used to explain this paradox by invoking

an invasion by an itinerant "white"

population from the Mediterranean area,

although this solution raised more

problems than it solved since the East

Africans in question include some of the

blackest people in the world with

characteristically wooly hair and a body

build unique among the world's

populations for its extreme linearity and

height.... The relatively long noses of

East Africa become explicable then when

one realizes that much of the area is

extremely dry for parts of the year." (C.

Loring Brace, "Nonracial Approach

Towards Human Diversity," cited in The

Concept of Race, Edited by Ashley

Montagu, The Free Press, 1980, pp.

135-136, 138)

"The .... excavations at Gogoshiis Qabe

(Somalia) uncovered eleven virtually

complete and articulated primary

burials...Closest morphological affinities

are with early Holocene skeletons from

Lake Turkana, Kenya...and Lake Besaka,

Ethiopia.."

(S. Brandt, (1986) The Upper

Pleistocene and early Holocene

prehistory of the Horn of Africa. Journal

African Archaeological Review. Volume

4, Number 1, Pages 41-82 )

"The role of tall, linearly built

populations in eastern Africa's prehistory

has always been debated. Traditionally,

they are viewed as late migrants into the

area. But as there is better

palaeoanthropological and linguistic

documentation for the earlier presence of

these populations than for any other

group in eastern Africa, it is far more

likely that they are indigenous eastern

Africans. ... prehistoric linear populations

show resemblances to both Upper

Pleistocene eastern African fossils and

present-day, non-Bantu-speaking groups

in eastern Africa, with minor differences

stemming from changes in overall

robusticity of the dentition and skeleton.

This suggests a longstanding tradition of

linear populations in eastern Africa,

contributing to the indigenous

development of cultural and biological

diversity from the Pleistocene up to the

present."

(L . A . SCHEPARTZ, "Who were the

later Pleistocene eastern Africans?" The

African Archaeological Review, 6

(1988), pp. 57- 72)

Reponse to Barros Serranos from topix

Posted by big mike M on June 11, 2012 at 5:40 PM Comments comments (0)

 

I already proved to you that west Africans, AE, south Africans and great lake region people all share a common ancestor! Which is my the 18 dynasty mummies had genetics of the 3 groups I listed. My info proves I'm right! Stop twisting things.

MODERN DAY West Africans did not live in west Africa at that time. There were people there, namely batwa. However, the people who predominate the area now, were NOT there at that time, this is a undisputed fact. Even the recent academic gathering in Chapel Hill discuss this very fact, that early bones/skulls do not match present day people. Obviously, if Herodotus said the Libyans came across kingdoms of people (batwa), who helped them get back to their homeland, then the area was inhabited, the question is, by WHOM.

Herodotus relates a story from some Libyans, who say, when they went into the region where the Niger River picks up, in what I assume may have been Mali, there was a kingdom of Batwa people living there. Also, most if not All west African groups have stories of coming from the north from their present locations. Well that or from the east, but again, not local to where they are now.

Now explain to me why scientist say King Tut died of sickle cells which is mainly found in west Africans?

http://news.discovery.com/history/tut-pharaoh-blood-disease.html

Also explain to me why scientist say the AE had a closet body plan to AA's then any other???? Note that this not by DNAtribes.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18257013

No doubt that Bantu and Ancient Egyptian share the same ancestors. Bantu and Ancient Egyptians are alike. Same as being alike with other African subgroups which also include Tropical West Africans and Sahara Africans (those 2 subgroups to a lower degree). But that was before the diversification of their language into Bantu. Egyptians didn't spoke a Bantu language but a language parent to Bantu languages. Like Germanic to English. Like this:

http://i1079.photobucket.com/albums/w513/Amunratheultimate/Misc/AfricanLanguageFamilyTree.jpg

It is evident that great lake region people(bantu), west Africans, south Africans and Egyptians all shara a common ancestor! You can deny this all you want, but its futile no matter what you do. And why the f**k would I wanna be a Hebrew? I [email protected] religion!


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