True Origins

Get your knowledge here...

Blog

Proof that early Europeans were African.

Posted by big mike M on June 5, 2012 at 7:35 AM Comments comments (0)

Early Europeans, as recently as

6,000-9000 years ago, looked somewhat

like Africans in terms of retained

'tropical' characteristics. Cold adaptation

was to bring about several physical

changes over time from the initial Out of

Africa migrations to Europe. Retained

traces of 'tropical' characteristics,

indicate a "large African role in the

origins of anatomically modern

Europeans." (Holliday and Churchill

2003).

"Body proportions covary with climate,

apparently as the result of climatic

selection. Ontogenetic research and

migrant studies have demonstrated that

body proportions are largely genetically

controlled and are under low selective

rates; thus studies of body form can

provide evidence for evolutionarily

short-term dispersals and/or gene flow.

Replacement predicts that the earliest

modern Europeans will possess

"tropical" body proportions (assuming

Africa is the center of origin), while

Regional Continuity permits only minor

shifts in body shape, due to climatic

change and/or improved cultural

buffering... results refute the hypothesis

of local continuity in Europe, and are

consistent with an interpretation of

elevated gene flow (and population

dispersal?) from Africa, followed by

subsequent climatic adaptation to colder

conditions." (Holliday, Trenton (1997)

Body proportions in Late Pleistocene

Europe and modern human origins.

Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 32,

Issue 5, 1997, Pages 423-447)

".. while the Late Upper Paleolithic and

Mesolithic humans have significantly

higher (i.e., tropically-adapted) brachial

and crural indices than do recent

Europeans, they also have shorter (i.e.,

cold-adapted) limbs. The somewhat

paradoxical retention of "tropical"

indices in the context of more

"cold-adapted" limb length is best

explained as evidence for Replacement in

the European Late Pleistocene, followed

by gradual cold adaptation in glacial

Europe." (Holliday, Trenton (1999)

Brachial and crural indices of European

Late Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic

humans. Journal of Human Evolution.

Volume 36, Issue 5, May 1999, Pages

549-566)

"Stature, body mass, and body

proportions are evaluated for the

Cheddar Man (Gough's Cave 1) skeleton.

Like many of his Mesolithic

contemporaries, Gough's Cave 1 evinces

relatively short estimated stature (ca.

166.2 cm [5' 5']) and low body mass (ca.

66 kg [146 lbs]). In body shape, he is

similar to recent Europeans for most

proportional indices. He differs,

however, from most recent Europeans in

his high crural index and tibial

length/trunk height indices. Thus, while

Gough's Cave 1 is characterized by a

total morphological pattern considered

'cold-adapted', these latter two traits may

be interpreted as evidence of a large

African role in the origins of anatomically

modern Europeans." (TRENTON W.

HOLLIDAY a1 and STEVEN E.

CHURCHILL.(2003). Gough's Cave 1

(Somerset, England): an assessment of

body size and shape, Bulletin of the

Natural History Museum: Geology,

58:37-44 Cambridge University Press)

 

More data showing early Europeans

were tropically adapted types like

Africans

"Body proportions are under strong

climatic selection and evince remarkable

stability within regional lineages. As

such, they offer a viable and robust

alternative to cranio-facial data in

assessing hypothesised continuity and

replacement with the transition to

agro-pastoralism in central Europe.

Humero-clavicular, brachial and crural

indices in a large sample (n=75) of

Linienbandkeramik (LBK), Late

Neolithic and Early Bronze Age

specimens from the middle

Elbe-Saale-Werra valley (MESV) were

compared with Eurasian and African

terminal Pleistocene, European

Mesolithic and geographically disparate

recent human specimens. Mesolithic

Europeans display considerable variation

in humero-clavicular and brachial indices

yet none approach the extreme

"hyper-polar" morphology of LBK

humans from the MESV. In contrast,

Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age

peoples display elongated brachial and

crural indices reminiscent of terminal

Pleistocene and "tropically adapted"

recent humans. These marked

morphological changes likely reflect

exogenous immigration during the

terminal Fourth millennium cal BC.

Population expansion and diffusion is a

function of increased mobility and

settlement dispersal concomitant with

significant technological and subsistence

changes in later Neolithic societies during

the late fourth millennium cal BCE."

-- Gallagher et al. "Population continuity,

demic diffusion and Neolithic origins in

central-southern Germany: the evidence

from body proportions." Homo.

2009;60(2):95-126. Epub 2009 Mar 4.