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Challenging Henn study

Posted by big mike M on May 7, 2013 at 1:30 PM

These are quotes from the study





The Nuragic populations appear to be part of a large and geographically unstructured cluster of modern European populations, thus making it difficult to infer their evolutionary relationships. However, the low levels of genetic diversity, both within and among ancient samples, as opposed to the sharp differences among modern Sardinian samples, support the hypothesis of the expansion of a small group of maternally related individuals,


Translation: That is an outright lie. They hinted at an evolutionary relation ship within the study. They cannot suggest northern Europe because there was no comparable civilization north of Sardinia in Europe. Thus they chose Iberia. Avoiding the geographically closest region ie North Africa, which had a similar civilization. In addition what they are saying is these people later EXPANDED into Europe.



Quote: .

These two sequences find no match in comparisons with 92 Africanfrican samples EITHER (data not given). Six haplotypes are shared between modern and ancient Sardinians, representing 61% of the ancient individuals



Translation: strange choice of words…”EITHER” plus, “data not shown” . Looks like they are trying to prove no connection with Africa. Although the data clearly shows a connection.



All outliers are either populations separated by large geographic distances from the other Europeans ([mainly North Africans and Central Asians), or well-known.



Translation: This is an outright lie. Did they look at a world map and calculated geographic distances? Maybe they thought we wouldn’t. . See notes on Fig 3. the CIRCLE – These European regions are further from Sardinia than North Africa. Estonia, Iceland, Holland, Switzland, etc What is astonishing is they included North African Berbers as Europeans to bring the overall European group closer to the Nuragic. After initially admitting the Sardinians are outliers compared to other Europeans. Man, talk about manipulating data.




In the multidimensional scaling of Fig. 3, Nuragic Sardinians cluster with the majority of the European populations. Given the small sample size, inevitable in ancient DNA studies, it is at present impossible to infer their evolutionary relationships from mtDNA aYnities. Nevertheless, in relation with ancient samples, Nuragic Sardinians appear more related to the Iberians than to the Etruscans, whose position in the graph is eccentric. Three data points are not enough for a robust generalisation. However, one can at least conclude that Sardinians and Iberians show a greater genealogical continuity with the Bronze-Age inhabitants of the same regions than the Tuscans. To better understand the processes leading to these differences it will be necessary to genetically characterise people who lived in those areas between 2,000 years ago and the present time.



Translation: Enough said, according to the authors they were probably Iberians migrants. Although using the same yardstick …they should be classified as North Africans migrants.






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1 Comment

Reply ThomasNut
7:50 PM on November 14, 2017 
Where in the world is the oldest ice on Earth? A team of scientists is on a mission to find out.

A group of researchers from 10 European countries is traveling to East Antarctica this month to locate the oldest ice on the planet. Their mission is the first phase of Beyond EPICA ­ Oldest Ice (BE-OI), a project to collect more than 1 million years of Earth's climate data. BE-OI research aims to answer questions about how Earth's climate has shifted in the past, and what that means for the future.

Scientists will drill ice cores, penetrating deep into the layers of ice covering Antarctica, according to BE-OI scientists. The layers of ice in the cores can be read like the rings of a tree, and scientists can determine the age of the ice by counting the annual layers. Ice also traps air bubbles as it freezes, preserving the ancient atmosphere's composition, the researchers said. While ice layers can reflect global temperatures over time, the air bubbles shed light on how the atmosphere has changed. Scientists use these results to reconstruct the planet's historical climate record. Stunning Photos of Antarctic Ice]

"In the early 2000s, we drilled an ice core from Antarctica that gave us a climate record going back 800,000 years," Robert Mulvaney, an ice core scientist from the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) who is working on the BE-OI project, said in a statement. "Now we want to double the length of that record to investigate an important shift in Earth's climate around one million years ago, when the planet's climate cycle between cold glacial conditions and warmer interludes changed from being dominated by a 41,000-year pattern to a 100,000-year cycle."

There have been at least five documented major ice ages during the 4.6 billion years since the Earth was formed, with the most recent occurring during the Pleistocene Epoch — beginning about 1.8 million years ago and lasting until about 11,700 years ago. Though the exact causes of ice ages have not been proven, scientists say the icy climate cycles are likely the result of the Earth's distance from the sun, ocean circulation, atmospheric composition and more.

Mulvaney said that understanding what controlled the shift in Earth's ice age cycles will help scientists understand how ice will behave in the current state of global warming due to climate change. The researchers will specifically investigate whether increasing levels of carbon dioxide had a role in the historical climate change.

Several sites in East Antarctica will be surveyed. Olaf Eisen, project coordinator and a glaciologist at the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI), said previous studies have determined key regions where scientists expect to find the oldest continuous ice record on Earth.

"Now we have to prove this and it is important that we learn as much as possible about deposition processes and the composition of the ice," Eisen said.

(catalog printing printing in China).

After determining suitable drilling sites, phase two of the BE-OI project will include ice- core extraction. These cores will capture ice from the surface to the bedrock, nearly 2 miles (3 kilometers) deep. Laboratories across Europe will then analyze the cores, adding to researchers' understanding of how Earth's climate and atmosphere have interacted over the past 1.5 million years.

"We need to understand the interaction between the Earth's atmosphere and climate in very different conditions in the past if we are to be sure we can predict the future climate response to increasing greenhouse gases," Mulvaney said. "There is no other place on Earth that retains such a long a record of the past atmosphere other than the Antarctic ice sheet, and it is tremendously exciting to be embarking now on the journey to recover this record."