True Origins

Get your knowledge here...

Forums

Post Reply
Forum Home > African History/Information and research > Origins of the Ancient Egyptians.

big mike M
Site Owner
Posts: 46

There is many speculations about who the Ancient Egyptians were and where they came from. 


Lets take a look. 8)

http://dnatribes.com/dnatribes-digest-2012-01-01.pdf

Also:

Recent studies find the ancient Egyptians had a

tropical body plan like sub-Saharan 'black' Africans

and were not cold-adapted like European type

populations. Tropical body plans also indicate

darker-skin.

QUOTE:

"The raw values in Table 6 suggest that Egyptians

had the "super-Negroid" body plan described by

Robins (1983).. This pattern is supported by Figure 7

(a plot of population mean femoral and tibial lengths;

data from Ruff, 1994), which indicates that the

Egyptians generally have tropical body plans. Of the

Egyptian samples, only the Badarian and Early

Dynastic period populations have shorter tibiae than

predicted from femoral length. Despite these

differences, all samples lie relatively clustered

together as compared to the other populations."

(Zakrzewski, S.R.(2003). "Variation in ancient

Egyptian stature and body proportions". American

Journal of Physical Anthropology 121 (3): 219-229.

 

a 2008 Study puts the ancient Egyptians closer to

US Blacks than whites:

 

Quotes:

 

"Intralimb (crural and brachial) indices are

significantly higher in ancient Egyptians than in

American Whites (except crural index among

females), i.e., Egyptians have relatively longer distal

segments (Table 4). Intralimb indices are not

significantly different between Egyptians and

American Blacks... Many of those who have studied

ancient Egyptians have commented on their

characteristically ''tropical'' or ''African'' body plan

(Warren, 1897; Masali, 1972; Robins, 1983; Robins

and Shute, 1983, 1984, 1986; Zakrzewski, 2003).

Egyptians also fall within the range of modern

African populations (Ruff and Walker, 1993), but

close to the upper limit of modern Europeans as well,

at least for the crural index (brachial indices are

definitely more ''African'').. In terms of femoral and

tibial length to total skeletal height proportions, we

found that ancient Egyptians are significantly

different from US Blacks, although still closer to

Blacks than to Whites.

 

Comparisons of linear body proportions of Old

Kingdom and non-Old Kingdom period individuals,

and workers and high officials in our sample found

no statistically significant differences among them.

Zakrzewski (2003) also found little evidence for

differences in linear body proportions of Egyptians

over a wider temporal range. In general, recent

studies of skeletal variation among ancient Egyptians

support scenarios of biological continuity through

time. Irish (2006) analyzed quantitative and

qualitative dental traits of 996 Egyptians from

Neolithic through Roman periods, reporting the

presence of a few outliers but concluding that the

dental samples appear to be largely homogeneous

and that the affinities observed indicate overall

biological uniformity and continuity from Predynastic

through Dynastic and Postdynastic periods.

 

Zakrzewski (2007) provided a comprehensive

summary of previous Egyptian craniometric studies

and examined Egyptian crania from six time periods.

She found that the earlier samples were relatively

more homogeneous in comparison to the later

groups. However, overall results indicated genetic

continuity over the Egyptian Predynastic and Early

Dynastic periods, albeit with a high level of genetic

diversity within the population, suggesting an

indigenous process of state formation. She also

concluded that while the biological patterning of the

Egyptian population varied across time, no consistent

temporal or spatial trends are apparent. Thus, the

stature estimation formulae developed here may be

broadly applicable to all ancient Egyptian

populations.."

("Stature estimation in ancient Egyptians: A new

technique based on anatomical reconstruction of

stature." Michelle H. Raxter, Christopher B. Ruff,

Ayman Azab, Moushira Erfan, Muhammad Soliman,

Aly El-Sawaf,(Am J Phys Anthropol. 2008,

Jun;136(2):147-55



King Ramesses III is E1b1a:


http://img42.imageshack.us/img42/1899/rameses3dnaresults.jpg

--

黑电

 


June 7, 2012 at 10:22 AM Flag Quote & Reply

big mike M
Site Owner
Posts: 46

Cont:

 

Older limb studies find the same:

 

"In this regard it is interesting to note that limb

proportions of Predynastic Naqada people in Upper

Egypt are reported to be "Super-Negroid," meaning

that the distal segments are elongated in the fashion

of tropical Africans.....skin color intensification and

distal limb elongation are apparent wherever people

have been long-term residents of the tropics." (C.L.

Brace, 1993. Clines and clusters..")

 

"An attempt has been made to estimate male and

female Egyptian stature from long bone length using

Trotter & Gleser negro stature formulae, previous

work by the authors having shown that these rather

than white formulae give more consistent results with

male dynastic material... When consistency has been

achieved in this way, predynastic proportions are

founded to be such that distal segments of the limbs

are even longer in relation to the proximal segments

than they are in modern negroes. Such proportions

are termed "super-negroid"...

 

Robins (1983) and Robins & Shute (1983) have

shown that more consistent results are obtained from

ancient Egyptian male skeletons if Trotter & Gleser

formulae for negro are used, rather than those for

whites which have always been applied in the past...

their physical proportions were more like modern

negroes than those of modern whites, with limbs that

were relatively long compared with the trunk, and

distal segments that were long compared with the

proximal segments. If ancient Egyptian males had

what may be termed negroid proportions, it seems

reasonable that females did likewise."

(Robins G, Shute CCD. 1986. Predynastic Egyptian

stature and physical proportions. Hum Evol

1:313-324. Ruff CB. 1994.)



Ancient Egyptian Body plan closer to African Americans. 8)



http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-y962OyaKpYA/TuwpoZWg92I/AAAAAAAAAjc/FoUvu685n54/s1600/ancient_egyptians_were_not_black_tropicalmelak.jpg


http://i1050.photobucket.com/albums/s417/KingMichael777/african_diversity_egypt_beautiful_girls_mostdiversity.jpg

--

黑电

 


June 7, 2012 at 10:26 AM Flag Quote & Reply

big mike M
Site Owner
Posts: 46

Cont:

Ancient Egyptians most related to other Africans

and are part of a Nilotic continuity rather than

something Mediterranean or Middle Eastern.


 

"Certainly there was some foreign admixture [in

Egypt], but basically a homogeneous African

population had lived in the Nile Valley from ancient

to modern times...[the] Badarian people, who

developed the earliest Predynastic Egyptian culture,

already exhibited the mix of North African and

Sub-Saharan physical traits that have typified

Egyptians ever since (Hassan 1985; Yurco 1989;

Trigger 1978; Keita 1990.. et al.,)... The peoples of

Egypt, the Sudan, and much of East African Ethiopia

and Somalia are now generally regarded as a Nilotic

continuity, with widely ranging physical features

(complexions light to dark, various hair and

craniofacial types) but with powerful common

cultural traits, including cattle pastoralist traditions.."

(Frank Yurco, "An Egyptological Review," 1996 -in

Mary R. Lefkowitz and Guy MacLean Rogers, Black

Athena Revisited, 1996, The University of North

Carolina Press, p. 62-100)

 

African peoples are the most diverse in the world

whether analyzed by DNA or skeletal or cranial

methods. Attempts to deny this are rooted in racism

and error. African people, particularly

SUB-SAHARAN Africans, vary the most in how

they look, more so than any other population in the

world.

 

"Estimates of genetic diversity in major geographic

regions are frequently made by pooling all individuals

into regional aggregates. This method can potentially

bias results if there are differences in population

substructure within regions, since increased variation

among local populations could inflate regional

diversity. A preferred method of estimating regional

diversity is to compute the mean diversity within

local populations. Both methods are applied to a

global sample of craniometric data consisting of 57

measurements taken on 1734 crania from 18 local

populations in six geographic regions: sub-Saharan

Africa, Europe, East Asia, Australasia, Polynesia,

and the Americas. Each region is represented by

three local populations.

 

Both methods for estimating regional diversity show

sub-Saharan Africa to have the highest levels of

phenotypic variation, consistent with many genetic

studies."

(Relethford, John "Global Analysis of Regional

Differences in Craniometric Diversity and Population

Substructure". Human Biology - Volume 73, Number

5, October 2001, pp. 629-636)

 

"The living peoples of the African continent are

diverse in facial characteristics, stature, skin color,

hair form, genetics, and other characteristics. No one

set of characteristics is more African than another.

Variability is also found in "sub-Saharan" Africa, to

which the word "Africa" is sometimes erroneously

restricted. There is a problem with definitions.

Sometimes Africa is defined using cultural factors,

like language, that exclude developments that clearly

arose in Africa. For example, sometimes even the

Horn of Africa (Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea) is

excluded because of geography and language and the

fact that some of its peoples have narrow noses and

faces.

 

However, the Horn is at the same latitude as Nigeria,

and its languages are African. The latitude of 15

degree passes through Timbuktu, surely in

"sub-Saharan Africa," as well as Khartoum in Sudan;

both are north of the Horn. Another false idea is that

supra-Saharan and Saharan Africa were peopled after

the emergence of "Europeans" or Near Easterners by

populations coming from outside Africa. Hence, the

ancient Egyptians in some writings have been

de-Africanized. These ideas, which limit the

definition of Africa and Africans, are rooted in racism

and earlier, erroneous "scientific" approaches." (S.

Keita, "The Diversity of Indigenous Africans," in

Egypt in Africa, Theodore Clenko, Editor (1996),

pp. 104-105.[10])


--

黑电

 


June 7, 2012 at 10:32 AM Flag Quote & Reply

big mike M
Site Owner
Posts: 46


Modern DNA studies find even though some

African peoples look different, they are genetically

related through the PN2 transition clade of the

Y-chromosone. Haplogroup E links numerous

peoples together even though they don't look exactly

the same.

 

"But the Y-chromosome clade defined by the PN2

transition (PN2/M35, PN2/M2) shatters the

boundaries of phenotypically defined races and true

breeding populations across a great geographical

expanse. African peoples with a range of skin colors,

hair forms and physiognomies have substantial

percentages of males whose Y chromosomes form

closely related clades with each other, but not with

others who are phenotypically similar. The

individuals in the morphologically or geographically

defined 'races' are not characterized by 'private'

distinct lineages restricted to each of them." (S O Y

Keita, R A Kittles, et al. "Conceptualizing human

variation," Nature Genetics 36, S17 - S20 (2004)

 

"Recall that the Horn-Nile Valley crania show, as a

group, the largest overlap with other regions. A

review of the recent literature indicates that there are

male lineage ties between African peoples who have

been traditionally labeled as being ''racially'' different,

with ''racially'' implying an ontologically deep divide.

The PN2 transition, a Y chromosome marker, defines

a lineage (within the YAPþ derived haplogroup E or

III) that emerged in Africa probably before the last

glacial maximum, but after the migration of modern

humans from Africa (see Semino et al., 2004). This

mutation forms a clade that has two daughter

subclades (defined by the biallelic markers M35/215

(or 215/M35) and M2) that unites numerous

phenotypically variant African populations from the

supra-Saharan, Saharan, and sub-Saharan regions.."

(S.O.Y Keita. Exploring northeast African metric

craniofacial variation at the individual level: A

comparative study using principal component

analysis. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 16:679-689, 2004.)

keita2004neanalysis.htm

 

"Africa contains tremendous cultural, linguistic and

genetic diversity, and has more than 2,000 distinct

ethnic groups and languages.. Studies using

mitochondrial (mt)DNA and nuclear DNA markers

consistently indicate that Africa is the most

genetically diverse region of the world." (Tishkoff

SA, Williams SM., Genetic analysis of African

populations: human evolution and complex disease.

Nature Reviews Genetics. 2002 Aug (8):611-21.)


June 7, 2012 at 10:35 AM Flag Quote & Reply

big mike M
Site Owner
Posts: 46

One of the oldest remains from Upper

Egypt, shows strong sub-Saharan

affinities, and early northern Egypt also

shows sub-Saharan affinities through

cultural traits- the 'Nubian complex' of

technology and production.

 

"The morphometric affinities of the

33,000 year old skeleton from Nazlet

Khater, Upper Egypt are examined using

multivariate statistical procedures.. The

results indicate a strong association

between some of the sub-Saharan Middle

Stone Age (MSA) specimens, and the

Nazlet Khater mandible. Furthermore,

the results suggest that variability

between African populations during the

Neolithic and Protohistoric periods was

more pronounced than the range of

variability observed among recent

African and Levantine populations."

(PINHASI Ron, SEMAL Patrick (2000).

The position of the Nazlet Khater

specimen among prehistoric and modern

African and Levantine populations.

Journal of human evolution. 2000, vol.

39, no3, pp. 269-288 )

 

"..Middle Paleolithic and the transition to

the Upper Paleolithic in the Lower Nile

Valley are described... the Middle

Paleolithic or, more appropriately,

Middle Stone Age of this region starts

with the arrival of new populations from

sub-Saharan Africa, as evidenced by the

nature of the Early to Middle Stone Age

transition in stratified sites. Throughout

the late Middle Pleistocene technological

change occurs leading to the

establishment of the Nubian Complex by

the onset of the Upper Pleistocene."

(Van Peer, Philip. Did middle stone age

moderns of sub-Saharan African descent

trigger an upper paleolithic revolution in

the lower nile valley? Anthropologie. vol.

42, no3, pp. 215-225)


June 7, 2012 at 10:38 AM Flag Quote & Reply

big mike M
Site Owner
Posts: 46

Cont:

Different features among Africans,

particularly EAST AFRICANS, like

narrow noses are not due to different

"race" mixes but are part of the built-in

physical diversity and variation of

African peoples.

Narrow noses appear in

the oldest African populations for

example, in Kenya's Gamble Cave

complex. East Africans like Somalians or

Kenyans do not need any outside race

"mix" or migration to make them look

the way they do.

 

QUOTE(s):

".. all their features can be found in

several living populations of East Africa,

like the Tutsi of Rwanda and Burundi,

who are very dark skinned and differ

greatly from Europeans in a number of

body proportions.. There is every reason

to believe that they are ancestral to the

living 'Elongated East Africans'. Neither

of these populations, fossil and modern,

should be considered to be closely

related to the populations of Europe and

western Asia.. In skin colour, the Tutsi

are darker than the Hutu, in the reverse

direction to that leading to the

caucasoids. Lip thickness provides a

similar case: on an average the lips of the

Tutsi are thicker than those of the Hutu."

[Jean Hiernaux, The People of Africa

(1975), pgs 42-43, 62-63)

 

"In sub-Saharan Africa, many

anthropological characters show a wide

range of population means or

frequencies. In some of them, the whole

world range is covered in the

sub-continent. Here live the shortest and

the tallest human populations, the one

with the highest and the one with the

lowest nose, the one with the thickest

and the one with the thinnest lips in the

world. In this area, the range of the

average nose widths covers 92 per cent

of the world range: only a narrow range

of extremely low means are absent from

the African record. Means for head

diameters cover about 80 per cent of the

world range; 60 per cent is the

corresponding value for a variable once

cherished by physical anthropologists,

the cephalic index, or ratio of the head

width to head length expressed as a

percentage....."

- Jean Hiernaux, "The People of Africa"

1975 p.53, 54

 

"Prehistoric human crania from

Bromhead's Site, Willey's Kopje, Makalia

Burial Site, Nakuru, and other localities

in the Eastern Rift Valley of Kenya are

reassessed using measurements and a

multivariate statistical approach.

Materials available for comparison

include series of Bushman and Hottentot

crania. South and East African Negroes,

and Egyptians. Up to 34 cranial

measurements taken on these series are

utilized to construct three multiple

discriminant frameworks, each of which

can assign modern individuals to a

correct group with considerable

accuracy. When the prehistoric crania are

classified with the help of these

discriminants, results indicate that several

of the skulls are best grouped with

modern Negroes. This is especially clear

in the case of individuals from

Bromhead's Site, Willey's Kopje, and

Nakuru, and the evidence hardly suggests

post-Pleistocene domination of the Rift

and surrounding territory by

"Mediterranean" Caucasoids, as has been

claimed. Recent linguistic and

archaeological findings are also

reviewed, and these seem to support

application of the term Nilotic Negro to

the early Rift populations." (Rightmire

GP. New studies of post-Pleistocene

human skeletal remains from the Rift

Valley, Kenya. Am J Phys Anthropol.

1975 May;42(3):351-69. )

 

"....inhabitants of East Africa right on the

equator have appreciably longer,

narrower, and higher noses than people

in the Congo at the same latitude. A

former generation of anthropologists

used to explain this paradox by invoking

an invasion by an itinerant "white"

population from the Mediterranean area,

although this solution raised more

problems than it solved since the East

Africans in question include some of the

blackest people in the world with

characteristically wooly hair and a body

build unique among the world's

populations for its extreme linearity and

height.... The relatively long noses of

East Africa become explicable then when

one realizes that much of the area is

extremely dry for parts of the year." (C.

Loring Brace, "Nonracial Approach

Towards Human Diversity," cited in The

Concept of Race, Edited by Ashley

Montagu, The Free Press, 1980, pp.

135-136, 138)

 

"The .... excavations at Gogoshiis Qabe

(Somalia) uncovered eleven virtually

complete and articulated primary

burials...Closest morphological affinities

are with early Holocene skeletons from

Lake Turkana, Kenya...and Lake Besaka,

Ethiopia.."

(S. Brandt, (1986) The Upper

Pleistocene and early Holocene

prehistory of the Horn of Africa. Journal

African Archaeological Review. Volume

4, Number 1, Pages 41-82 )

 

"The role of tall, linearly built

populations in eastern Africa's prehistory

has always been debated. Traditionally,

they are viewed as late migrants into the

area. But as there is better

palaeoanthropological and linguistic

documentation for the earlier presence of

these populations than for any other

group in eastern Africa, it is far more

likely that they are indigenous eastern

Africans. ... prehistoric linear populations

show resemblances to both Upper

Pleistocene eastern African fossils and

present-day, non-Bantu-speaking groups

in eastern Africa, with minor differences

stemming from changes in overall

robusticity of the dentition and skeleton.

This suggests a longstanding tradition of

linear populations in eastern Africa,

contributing to the indigenous

development of cultural and biological

diversity from the Pleistocene up to the

present."

(L . A . SCHEPARTZ, "Who were the

later Pleistocene eastern Africans?" The

African Archaeological Review, 6

(1988), pp. 57- 72)



June 7, 2012 at 10:41 AM Flag Quote & Reply

big mike M
Site Owner
Posts: 46


 

Tropical African have variation in body breadth in numerous ways:  ;)

 

 

a) Millennia of adaptation in the cool, monsoon-swept Sahara

when it was a lush greenbelt before its arid phase, AND millennia

of adaptation in the cool subtropical Medit zone of Egypt

 

b) Millennia as pioneers and operators advanced food production

and forms of agriculture.

 

These factors cover the bases. No "Mediterraneans"

or "Middle Easterners" are needed to give the natives

diversity in body mass. in addition Africa's built in diversity

also more than covers all bases:

 

(c) The vast built-in genetic diversity of Africa

home of modern humanity- with the most genetic diversity on the planet

 

(d) Continual movement of numerous variants and blends

of tropical African peoples and tribes out of the

Saharan zone, East Africa etc into the Nile Valley.

Mass influxes of "Middle Easterners" or bogus "Mediterraneans"

are not needed to give tropical Africans diversity.

Such outsiders were always present, particularly in the later

stages but did not significantly affect the fundamental,

overall core population for millennia.

 

 

QUOTES:

[i]

"Furthermore bi-iliac breadth appears to change slowly over time,

likely due to multiple factors (thermoregulation, obstetrics,

locomotion) influencing its shape (Ruff 1994; Auerback 2007).."

 

"Generally narrower body breaths of the foragers contrast markedy

with the wider-bodied agriculturalists. Although bi-iliac breadth

has been argued to be stable over long periods of time (Auerbach,

2007), this shift in mean body breath may be indicative of changes

correlated with subsistence economy."

 

"Any use of the bi-iliac breath/stature body mass estimations

would inherently reflect changes in stature.."

 

"In this study, skeletal measures of body size were analysed to

evaluate the long-term impact of the transition to agriculture in the Nile

Valley.. Here we demonstrate that this transition is also associated

with a modest reduction and subsequent improvement in stature and

body mass. This trend could be broadly interpreted in the context

of models of relationship between body size and nutrition."

-- Pinhasi & Stock. 2011. Human Bioarchaeology of the Transition to

Agriculture

 

 

Pre-Dynastic Badari, who cluster with tropical Africans were

ALREADY farming and stock-raising with some hunting/

foraging on the side. In other words, tropical

African variants were ALREADY engaging in the

agricultural practices that are correlated with greater

bi-iliac ranges. "Diffusion" from the Middle East

of plants such as wheat, is just that, diffusuion

that was adopted by the indigenous tropical variants

on their own terms. They could grow wheat or peas,

on their own ground, without needing any "wandering Caucasoids"

to be present.

 

QUOTE:

Furthermore, the archaeology of northern Africa does not

support demic diffusion of farming from the Near East.

The evidence presented by Wetterstrom indicates that early

African farmers in the Fayum initially incorporated Near

Eastern domesticates into an INDIGENOUS foraging strategy,

and only over time developed a dependence on horticulture.

This is inconsistent with in-migrating farming settlers,

who would have brought a more abrupt change in subsistence

strategy. "The same archaeological pattern occurs west of

Egypt, where domestic animals and, later, grains were

gradually adopted after 8000 yr B.P. into the established

pre-agricultural Capsian culture, present across the northern

Sahara since 10,000 yr B.P. From this continuity, it has been

argued that the pre-food-production Capsian peoples spoke

languages ancestral to the Berber and/or Chadic branches of

Afroasiatic, placing the proto-Afroasiatic period distinctly

before 10,000 yr B.P."

--Source: The Origins of Afroasiatic

Christopher Ehret, S. O. Y. Keita, Paul Newman;, and Peter Bellwood

Science 3 December 2004: Vol. 306. no. 5702, p. 1680

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------

 

US Blacks as a tropical people were used as a stand-in

to estimate height of Ancient Egyptians. In those studies

Black AMericans were found to cluster closer to Ancient Egyytians

than EUropeans. Raxter's 2011 study.againconfirms that tropical

peoples have similar limb proportions- hence Egyptians and Nubians

cluster thereby. Estimates of stature make little difference

Over-estimation of stature using US Black limb proportions,

or the use of no estimations at all makes little difference because

in limb to limb comparison, the AE's are closer to the US blacks.

Throw out the stature estimation task and this central result STILL stands.

 

 

Limb proportions don;t quickly change but vary very slowly,

and are heavily genetically embedded- quote

 

"Human body proportions also appear to have a substantial genetic

component. Differences in body proportions between Eskimos and

non-Eskimos, for example, appear early in ontogeny.. The low sitting

height/stature ratio of Australian aborigines is present early in

development.. Schultz (1923, 1926) found significant differences between

African–American and Euroamerican fetuses in brachial and crural

indices, length of the legs relative to the trunk, and relative pelvic width.

The fact that these ‘‘racial’’ features are manifested early in fetal life

indicates strong genetic encoding of body and limb proportions.

In addition, body shape in human appears to be more resistant to

nutritional deficiency or disease than is body size .. Body proportions of

human migrants, for example, are conservative; despite often exhibiting a

marked increase in stature, children of migrants tend to retain the body

proportions of their ancestral homeland, and do not develop the

proportions of their new neighbors.. Also, while secular trends in body

shape have been documented, they do not negate the value of body

proportions as short-term phylogenetic markers... nutritional differences

alone cannot explain all of the global variability in body shape. Rather,

they note that much of the difference seen today in body shape between

broad geographic groups is genetically-driven.

Migration within a larger time framework took place ca. 15,000–18,000

BP, .., ultimately founding the modern Amerindian population. Despite

having as much as 18,000 years of selection in environments as diverse as

those found in the Old World, body mass and proportion clines in the

Americas are less steep than those in the Old World.. Amerindians,. This

suggests that body proportions tend not to be very plastic under natural

conditions, and that selective rates on body shape are such that evolution

in these features is long-term."

 

--Holliday T. (1997). Body proportions in Late Pleistocene Europe..human

origins. Jrnl Hum Evo. 32: 423-447

 

 

Agriculture and use of outside animals and plants not accompanied

by mass demic diffusion, but gradually adopted on the own terms of

the native farmers, according to their own preferences, without the

need for any huge influxes of outside immigrants

 

Ovacaprines appear in the western desert before the Nile valley

proper (Wendorf and Schild 2001). However, it is significant that

ancient Egyptian words for the major Near Eastern domesticates -

Sheep, goat, barley, and wheat - are not loans from either Semitic,

Sumerian, or Indo-European. This argues against a mass settler

colonization (at replacement levels) of the Nile valley from the Near

East at this time. This is in contrast with some words for domesticates

in some early Semitic languages, which are likely Sumerian loan

words (Diakonoff 1981).. This evidence indicates that northern Nile

valley peoples apparently incorporated the Near Eastern domesticates

into a Nilotic foraging subsistence tradition on their own terms

(Wetterstrom 1993).

There was apparently no “Neolithic revolution” brought by settler

colonization,

but a gradual process of neolithicization (Midant-Reynes 2000).

-- Keita and Boyce, Genetics, Egypt, And History: Interpreting

Geographical

Patterns Of Y Chromosome Variation,

History in Africa 32 (2005) 221-246

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

--------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

Body mass changes due primarily to agriculture and food production

changes and local adaptation not mass immigrant influxes. - QUOTE::

 

"Generally narrower body breaths of the foragers contrast markedy

with the wider-bodied agriculturalists. Although bi-iliac breadth has

been argued to be stable over long periods of time (Auerbach, 2007),

this shift in mean body breath may be indicative of changes correlated

with subsistence economy."

 

"In this study, skeletal measures of body size were analysed to

evaluate the long-term impact of the transition to agriculture in the

Nile Valley.. Here we demonstrate that this transition is also

associated with a modest reduction and subsequent improvement

in stature and body mass. This trend could be broadly interpreted

in the context of models of relationship between body size and nutrition."

 

 

-- Pinhasi & Stock. 2011 The Bioarchaeology of the Transition to

Agriculture

 

-------------------------

 

Hypocritical double standards of the European academy in research

on African peoples - C.A. Diop

 

"But it is only the most gratuitous theory that considers the Dinka,

the Nouer and the Masai, among others, to be Caucasoids. What if an African

ethnologist were to persist in recognizing as white-only the blond, blue-eyed

Scandinavians, and systematically refused membership to the remaining Europeans,

and Mediterraneans in particular—the French, Italians, Greek, Spanish, and

Portuguese? Just as the inhabitants of Scandinavia and the Mediterranean countries

must be considered as two extreme poles of the same anthropological reality, so

should the Negroes of East and West Africa be considered as the two extremes in

the reality of the Negro world. To say that a Shillouk, a Dinka, or a Nouer is a

Caucasoid is for an African as devoid of sense and scientific interest as would be,

to a European, an attitude that maintained that a Greek or a Latin were not of the

same race."

-- Cheikh Anta Diop, 'Evolution of the Negro world', Presence Africaine (Vol. 23, no. 51, 1964), pp. 5-15.


June 7, 2012 at 10:44 AM Flag Quote & Reply

big mike M
Site Owner
Posts: 46


http://img189.imageshack.us/img189/5873/limbproportionsgeneticc.jpg

--

黑电

 


June 7, 2012 at 10:46 AM Flag Quote & Reply

big mike M
Site Owner
Posts: 46

Ancient and Modern Egyptians mainly of African Haplogroup E:




Some Videos: :)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b9hxX1Ehmp0&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=98viuKQnIWU&feature=plcp&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active

 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s5wLCVpBjhk&list=FLOi5yL1B9aLEWSTjyIwcWLw&index=3&feature=plpp_video&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QYJnAL3Rtfw&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active

 

Dr Sally-Ann Ashton

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CLoDgDE83rs

Kemet at the Fitzwilliam

http://www.fitzmuseum.cam.ac.uk/dept/ant/egypt/outreach/kemet/index.html

Dr Mario Beatty

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q1YCD_1SKxM

Professor Stephen Quirke (Petrie Museum, London)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B7lxbAIiGA8

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J8SfHQnCC9o

Dr Cheik Anta Diop

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xl7FKb4NPiI

Dr Martin Bernal

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o4maNtzhL9Q

Dr Ivan Van Sertima

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_dIwhnyz1g&feature=related

Dr Philippe Charlier

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WBcR2-Yrauo

Dr Yosef ben-Jochannan

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QVIepaDRw2Q

Dr Theophile Obenga

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cTaI1yQBsPs

Dr Maulena Karenga

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vPaB7uBYcc8

Professor Manu Ampim

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pTSob2ZJJZQ

Dr Shomarko Keita

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f09-bRaJYB8

 

http://img109.imageshack.us/img109/261/yx58.jpg

June 7, 2012 at 10:50 AM Flag Quote & Reply

Son of RA
Member
Posts: 28

Great thread Michael.

June 7, 2012 at 11:41 AM Flag Quote & Reply

Evilblackwomen
Member
Posts: 8

Im lovin this thread mike!!!  Good job!

 I hope you finish working on this site and get more new members.

June 7, 2012 at 4:34 PM Flag Quote & Reply

big mike M
Site Owner
Posts: 46

Evilblackwomen at June 7, 2012 at 4:34 PM

Im lovin this thread mike!!!  Good job!

 I hope you finish working on this site and get more new members. Love yah!

Thanks Natasha. :)

June 7, 2012 at 9:05 PM Flag Quote & Reply

Son of RA
Member
Posts: 28

I'm going to do more research on this DNAtribes.

June 11, 2012 at 6:37 PM Flag Quote & Reply

AncientBerber
Member
Posts: 3

http://www.dnatribes.com/dnatribes-digest-2013-02-01.pdf

Two more ancient negro mummies. The ball is rollin downhill now. I know I never introduced myself, but I've been really busy so I will just say my name is Ray and I'm all about history and culture. Nice to meet you all yadda yadda yadda

June 29, 2013 at 2:59 AM Flag Quote & Reply

You must login to post.